Monday, September 25, 2017

Health Benefits of Manuka Honey as an Essential Constituent for Tissue Regeneration

Curr Drug Metab. 2017 Sep 11

Honey is known for its therapeutic properties from ancient civilizations but only since last few decades its mechanism has been studied on how it causes epithelial regeneration leading to wound and ulcer healing..

In the present review the health perspectives of honey, its chemical composition with special reference to flavonoids, polyphenol composition and other bioactive trace compounds used in tissue regeneration have been highlighted. Honey can inhibit carcinogenesis by moderating with molecular processes of initiation, advancement and progression stage of cancer cells, therefore it is considered a promising anti-cancer agent. Several, well-intentioned characteristics have drawn the attention of researchers to check copious endowed-biological activities of Manuka honey, including antioxidant, antimicrobial and anti-proliferative capacities against cancer cells. Thus, scientists are trying to use Manuka honey in the area of biomedical and tissue engineering to design a template for regeneration. Naturally derived antibacterial agents, like Manuka honey, contain mixture of compounds, which can influence antibacterial potency.

The non-peroxide bacteriostatic properties of Manuka honey have been formerly associated to the presence of methylglyoxal (MGO). The assimilation of MGO as a functional antibacterial additive during designing a tissue template production would explore its properties as a potential agent for manufacturing tissue regeneration template.

The role of glyoxal (GO) and MGO in the bacterial growth inhibition, and in addition to immunomodulatory role, it also enhances wound healing and tissue regeneration. Researchers should step forward to explore the biomedical application, particularly integration into tissue regeneration templates. Therefore, further studies are fully needed to provide detailed information on active components of Manuka honey and their potential therapeutic efficacy in numerous models of human diseases.

Sunday, September 24, 2017

Dried Bee Pollen Shows Very Low Microbial Contamination

Microbial characterization of bee pollen from the Vesuvius area collected by using three different traps

PLoS One. 2017 Sep 21;12(9):e0183208

Flower pollen is collected by honeybee foragers, adhered on their rear legs and transported into the hives in the form of pellets. Once in the hives, bee pollen is moisturised with nectar and bee mouth secretions and due to enzymatically modifications it becomes the so-called bee-bread, the protein reservoir of young bees.

Bee pollen can be artificially removed from bee legs and collected by using specific systems, the bee pollen traps. Bee pollen is commercialized for human consumption as fresh product and after freezing or drying. Although bee pollen is nowadays largely consumed in developed countries, as food or food supplement according to local legislation, little is known on its safety related to microbiological hazards.

In this work, we aimed to characterize for the first time the microbiological profile of Italian bee pollen in fresh, frozen and dried form collected along an entire harvesting season. Moreover, monthly microbiological analyses were performed on frozen (storage at -18°C) and dried (storage at room temperature) bee pollen over a 4 months period.

Further aim of this work was the evaluation of the possible impact on production level of three different traps used for pollen collection. Our results on microbial contamination of fresh and frozen bee pollen show that a more comprehensive microbiological risk assessment of bee pollen is required. On the other side, dried pollen showed very low microbial contamination and no pathogen survived after the drying process and during storage.

Saturday, September 23, 2017

Buckwheat Honey Has High Antioxidant Activity

The Protective Effect of Whole Honey and Phenolic Extract on Oxidative DNA Damage in Mice Lymphocytes Using Comet Assay

Plant Foods Hum Nutr. 2017 Sep 19

In this study, the antioxidant activity and the protective effect against hydrogen peroxide-induced DNA damage were assessed for five honeys of different botanical origin. Seven phenolic acids were detected in the honey samples. Ferulic acid was the most abundant phenolic acid detected in longan honey, jujube honey and buckwheat honey. Ellagic acid, p-hydroxybenzoic acid and protocatechuic acid were the main phenolic acids detected in vitex honey.

Of all honey samples tested, the highest total phenolic content and antioxidant activity were found in buckwheat honey, whereas the lowest total phenolic content and antioxidant activity were found in locust honey. Treatment with hydrogen peroxide induced a 62% increase in tail DNA in mice lymphocytes, and all studied honeys significantly inhibited this effect (P < 0.05).

The buckwheat honey with higher antioxidant capability also exhibited super protective effect than others. Phenolic extracts of honey displayed greater protective effects than whole honey in comet assay. The hydrogen peroxide-generated increase in 8-hydroxy-2-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) was effectively inhibited by the honeys studied (P < 0.05). Moreover, a dose-effect relationship between honey concentration and its protective effect was clearly observed in this study.

It can be deduced that phenolic acids of honey can penetrate into lymphocytes and protect DNA from oxidative damage by scavenging hydrogen peroxide and/or chelating ferrous ions.

Friday, September 22, 2017

Australia and New Zealand in a champagne-esque manuka honey war

3AW

Australia and New Zealand are locked in a battle over ownership of the word ‘manuka’ as the expensive honey’s popularity booms.

In a champagne-esque war, New Zealand is moving to make manuka honey its own, prompting Australian honey-makers to form a new alliance and fight back...

Thursday, September 21, 2017

Apitherapy Folk Remedies for Bronchitis

2. Honey, onion and milk. This tool should be taken as a cough syrup, a teaspoon every hour for 1-2 days. Chop a large onion and pour it into a saucepan, pour a glass of milk and simmer over low heat until until the onions are soft. Then strain the onion in the milk and let it cool slightly and add 1 tsp of honey for 1 tbsp. of the milk decoction.

3. Honey, propolis and butter. Grind 10 g of a dry propolis with the help of a grater, melt 100 g of butter and let it cool down, then mix and add 100 g of honey. Make in half a Cup of boiled warm water add 1 tsp funds, which must be kept in the fridge, stir thoroughly and drink. Repeat the procedure 2-3 times a day.

The treatment of any disease should be treated comprehensively, using all available methods that can facilitate and improve the health of the person. So hope that will only help traditional medicine, is wrong...

Wednesday, September 20, 2017

Asiatic Honey Bee (A. cerana) Venom Shows Anti-Fibrinolytic and Anti-Microbial Activity

Anti-fibrinolytic and anti-microbial activities of a serine protease inhibitor from honeybee (Apis cerana) venom

Comp Biochem Physiol C Toxicol Pharmacol. 2017 Sep 13

Bee venom contains a variety of peptide constituents, including low-molecular-weight protease inhibitors. While the putative low-molecular-weight serine protease inhibitor Api m 6 containing a trypsin inhibitor-like cysteine-rich domain was identified from honeybee (Apis mellifera) venom, no anti-fibrinolytic or anti-microbial roles for this inhibitor have been elucidated.

In this study, we identified an Asiatic honeybee (A. cerana) venom serine protease inhibitor (AcVSPI) that was shown to act as a microbial serine protease inhibitor and plasmin inhibitor. AcVSPI was found to consist of a trypsin inhibitor-like domain that displays ten cysteine residues.

Interestingly, the AcVSPI peptide sequence exhibited high similarity to the putative low-molecular-weight serine protease inhibitor Api m 6, which suggests that AcVSPI is an allergen Api m 6-like peptide. Recombinant AcVSPI was expressed in baculovirus-infected insect cells, and it demonstrated inhibitory activity against trypsin, but not chymotrypsin. Additionally, AcVSPI has inhibitory effects against plasmin and microbial serine proteases; however, it does not have any detectable inhibitory effects on thrombin or elastase.

Consistent with these inhibitory effects, AcVSPI inhibited the plasmin-mediated degradation of fibrin to fibrin degradation products. AcVSPI also bound to bacterial and fungal surfaces and exhibited anti-microbial activity against fungi as well as gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria.

These findings demonstrate the anti-fibrinolytic and anti-microbial roles of AcVSPI as a serine protease inhibitor.

Tuesday, September 19, 2017

Bee Venom May Help Treat Neuropathic Pain


Antiallodynic Effects of Bee Venom in an Animal Model of Complex Regional Pain Syndrome Type 1 (CRPS-I)

Toxins 2017, 9(9), 285

Neuropathic pain in a chronic post-ischaemic pain (CPIP) model mimics the symptoms of complex regional pain syndrome type I (CRPS I). The administration of bee venom (BV) has been utilized in Eastern medicine to treat chronic inflammatory diseases accompanying pain. However, the analgesic effect of BV in a CPIP model remains unknown.

The application of a tight-fitting O-ring around the left ankle for a period of 3 h generated CPIP in C57/Bl6 male adult mice. BV (1 mg/kg ; 1, 2, and 3 times) was administered into the SC layer of the hind paw, and the antiallodynic effects were investigated using the von Frey test and by measuring the expression of neurokinin type 1 (NK-1) receptors in dorsal root ganglia (DRG). The administration of BV dose-dependently reduced the pain withdrawal threshold to mechanical stimuli compared with the pre-administration value and with that of the control group. After the development of the CPIP model, the expression of NK-1 receptors in DRG increased and then decreased following the administration of BV.

SC administration of BV results in the attenuation of allodynia in a mouse model of CPIP. The antiallodynic effect was objectively proven through a reduction in the increased expression of NK-1 receptors in DRG

Monday, September 18, 2017

Health Benefits of Manuka Honey as an Essential Constituent for Tissue Regeneration

Curr Drug Metab. 2017 Sep 11

Honey is known for its therapeutic properties from ancient civilizations but only since last few decades its mechanism has been studied on how it causes epithelial regeneration leading to wound and ulcer healing..

In the present review the health perspectives of honey, its chemical composition with special reference to flavonoids, polyphenol composition and other bioactive trace compounds used in tissue regeneration have been highlighted. Honey can inhibit carcinogenesis by moderating with molecular processes of initiation, advancement and progression stage of cancer cells, therefore it is considered a promising anti-cancer agent. Several, well-intentioned characteristics have drawn the attention of researchers to check copious endowed-biological activities of Manuka honey, including antioxidant, antimicrobial and anti-proliferative capacities against cancer cells. Thus, scientists are trying to use Manuka honey in the area of biomedical and tissue engineering to design a template for regeneration.

Naturally derived antibacterial agents, like Manuka honey, contain mixture of compounds, which can influence antibacterial potency. The non-peroxide bacteriostatic properties of Manuka honey have been formerly associated to the presence of methylglyoxal (MGO). The assimilation of MGO as a functional antibacterial additive during designing a tissue template production would explore its properties as a potential agent for manufacturing tissue regeneration template.

The role of glyoxal (GO) and MGO in the bacterial growth inhibition, and in addition to immunomodulatory role, it also enhances wound healing and tissue regeneration. Researchers should step forward to explore the biomedical application, particularly integration into tissue regeneration templates.

Therefore, further studies are fully needed to provide detailed information on active components of Manuka honey and their potential therapeutic efficacy in numerous models of human diseases.

Sunday, September 17, 2017

Research on Honey as Anti-Cancer Agent


New discovery in UAEU research project on cancer-tackling qualities of honey

Researchers at United Arab Emirates University (UAEU) have taken their groundbreaking studies into the role of honey in battling cancer a step further, through new findings that pinpoint its potential impact.

The beneficial effects of Manuka honey — renowned for its anti-bacterial properties and capacity to heal wounds — as an anti-cancer agent were identified in 2013 by a research group headed by Dr. Basel Al-Ramadi, then chair of the Department of Medical Microbiology and Immunology within UAEU’s College of Medicine and Health Sciences (CMHS).

Now further investigation by the team has discovered a particular molecular aspect of breast cancer that this type of honey can combat, paving the way for the development of new understanding about precisely how it can be used to fight one of the world’s most serious diseases, and enhancing UAEU’s reputation for pioneering medical research capable of global impact....

Saturday, September 16, 2017

Propolis Effectively Prevents Chemotherapy-Induced Oral Mucositis

Oncology Nurse Advisor

The combination of propolis and sodium bicarbonate is an effective and well-tolerated therapeutic option to prevent oral mucositis (OM) in patients with breast cancer receiving chemotherapy, according to a study published The European Journal of Cancer Care.

Previous studies exploring the use of propolis, a waxy substance produced by bees that is considered to be a complementary therapy to anticancer agents, for the treatment of esophagitis, stomatitis, oral ulcers, and other conditions achieved mixed results. For this study, researchers investigated the effects of propolis in the prevention of chemotherapy-induced OM in patients with breast cancer.

Friday, September 15, 2017

Charles Mraz Apitherapy Course And Conference (CMACC)


Theory In Practice, A Hands-On Approach

November 10-12 2017

The Redondo Beach Hotel

400 N. Harbor Drive

Redondo Beach, CA 90277

310-376-0746

Thursday, September 14, 2017

Antioxidant and Cytotoxic Properties of Brazilian Propolis

Antioxidant and cytotoxic activity of propolis of Plebeia droryana and Apis mellifera (Hymenoptera, Apidae) from the Brazilian Cerrado biome

Published: September 12, 2017

Propolis is a complex bioactive mixture produced by bees, known to have different biological activities, especially in countries where there is a rich biodiversity of plant species. The objective of this study was to determine the chemical composition and evaluate the antioxidant and cytotoxic properties of Brazilian propolis from the species Plebeia droryana and Apis mellifera found in Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil.

In the ethanolic extracts of P. droryana propolis (ExEP-P) and A. mellifera (ExEP-A) acids, phenolic compounds, terpenes and tocopherol were identified as major compounds. Both extracts presented antioxidant activity against the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical, the maximum activities being 500 μg/mL (ExEP-P) and 300 μg/mL (ExEP-A). However, only ExEP-A was able to inhibit lipid peroxidation induced by the oxidizing agent 2,2'-azobis(2-amidinopropane) dihydrochloride (AAPH), which inhibited oxidative hemolysis and reduced the levels of malondialdehyde (MDA) in human erythrocytes for 4 h of incubation. The extracts also reduced the cell viability of the K562 erythroleukemia tumour line, with a predominance of necrotic death.

Thus, it is concluded that the propolis produced by P. droryana and A. mellifera contain important compounds capable of minimizing the action of oxidizing substances in the organism and reducing the viability of erythroleukemia cells.

Wednesday, September 13, 2017

Manuka Honey Helps Heal Horse Wounds

Manuka honey proves it worth in healing horse wounds, but quality is essential – study
September 13, 2017, Horsetalk.co.nz

The value of manuka honey in helping to heal horse wounds has been shown in an Australian study, but the researchers say its important to use only the highest grades.

The researchers showed that manuka honey can have significant healing properties but not when it has a low Unique Manuka Factor (UMF).

Manuka honey is the only honey graded for antibacterial activity. It is graded against the standard antiseptic phenol.

The UMF scale runs from 0-30 and graded honey will have this on the packaging.

The study team tested whether UMF 20 honey had better effects on healing than UMF 5 honey and generic-store bought honey. They compared the results to healing of untreated wounds treated only with saline as a control.

The researchers also analysed whether the healing was primarily due to manuka honey’s antibacterial effects or because of effects on the cells that help healing.

Professor Andrew Dart, from the University of Sydney School of Veterinary Science, said the research was the most recent of a series of studies investigating the effects of manuka honey on healing of open wounds of horses...

Tuesday, September 12, 2017

Royal jelly – the nobility’s food

Times of Malta

Nature has provided us with several different ‘superfoods’ that have proven to be beneficial to our overall health and fitness. Nevertheless, Royal jelly (RJ) is more than likely the reigning king… or queen of these natural products.

Most people assume that honey is the only bees’ product we collect from the beehive. However, bees also give us RJ, propolis and pollen. Propolis is a resinous substance that the bees produce from tree glue which is mixed with their saliva. Both propolis and pollen are used in alternative medicine. RJ is a thick, milky-white, creamy liquid secreted from glands of the nurse bees, which is extremely nutritious and complex in its chemical composition...

Monday, September 11, 2017

Gwyneth Paltrow Uses Bee Venom Treatment to Get Rid of Her Scars


Gwyneth Paltrow Swears This Strange Treatment Got Rid of Her Scars
Liz Ritter, September 09, 2017

Gwyneth Paltrow's premiere issue of Goop magazine hit yesterday for pre-order and, besides a pretty revealing cover shot of the star, she gets into something she swears by that may have some people—not too surprisingly—scratching their heads: Bee venom injections in her C-section scar.

As reported on by Us, the 44-year-old shared that, "The doctor stings you [with a live bee] like it's an acupuncture needle. I had it done on my cesarean scar… I had some buckling in the scar, and it really evened it out."

Sounds out there but New York dermatologist Adebola Dele-Michael, MD, says bee venom contains hyaluronidase and other substances, which can soften scar tissue and keloids, but stresses that "caution must be taken with this treatment as some people are allergic to bee venom and may develop anaphylaxis when exposed to bee venom."

Sunday, September 10, 2017

Free Amino Acids Profile of Polish and Slovak Honeys

Free amino acids profile of Polish and Slovak honeys based on LC–MS/MS method without the prior derivatisation


Journal of Food Science and Technology, pp 1–8


LC–MS/MS method was applied for determination of free amino acids in honey without derivatisation steps.

Twenty free amino acids including aspartic acid, asparagine, glutamic acid, glutamine, alanine, arginine, glycine, leucine, histidine, hydroxyproline, isoleucine, lysine, methionine, phenylalanine, proline, serine, threonine, tryptophan, valine and ornithine were analyzed in thirty honey samples from Poland and Slovakia.

The analysis covered: acacia, lime, rape, multifloral and forest types of honey. Applied method was characterized to had good sensitivity with limit of detection ranged from 3.0 ng/cm3 for valine to 13.0 ng/cm3 for hydroxyproline.

Average content of proline (main amino acid component in honey) ranged from 151.46 μg/g (rape honey from Slovakia) to 389.66 μg/g for forest honey (honeydew honey) from Poland. In analyzed honeys large quantities of glutamine, glutamic acid, lysine, phenylalanine, asparagine, alanine, and valine were also found.

Saturday, September 09, 2017

Honey Mitigates Radiation-Induced Oral Mucositis in Head and Neck Cancer Patients

Honey Mitigates Radiation-Induced Oral Mucositis in Head and Neck Cancer Patients without Affecting the Tumor Response.

Foods. 2017 Sep 6;6(9). pii: E77

Radiation-induced mucositis is a dose-limiting factor in the effective treatment of head and neck (H amp; N) cancers. The objective of this study was to understand the efficacy of honey in mitigating radiation-induced mucositis and whether it would interfere with tumor control. This was a single-blinded, randomized, controlled study and was carried out in patients with H & N cancer requiring curative radiotherapy (gt;62 Gy (Gray)). The patients meeting the inclusion criteria were randomly assigned to receive either honey ( n = 25) or povidone-iodine (active comparator) ( n = 25) during radiotherapy. Oral mucositis was assessed using the RTOG (Radiation Therapy Oncology Group) grading system before the start, during, and at the end of the treatment by an investigator unaware of the treatment. The results indicate that when compared with the active comparator, honey reduced the radiation-induced oral mucositis, decreased the incidence of intolerable mucositis, treatment breaks, loss of treatment days ( p lt; 0.0001 and lt; 0.0003) and did not affect the radiation-induced tumor response. The clinical observations indicate that honey mitigates the radiation-induced mucositis and does not interfere with tumor cell killing.

Friday, September 08, 2017

Lebanese Propolis Exhibits Significant Cytotoxicity and Anti-Proliferative Activity

Chemical characterization and cytotoxic activity evaluation of Lebanese propolis

Biomed Pharmacother. 2017 Aug 26;95:298-307

Chemical composition, anti-proliferative and proapoptotic activity as well as the effect of various fractions of Lebanese propolis on the cell cycle distribution were evaluated on Jurkat leukemic T-cells, glioblastoma U251 cells, and breast adenocarcinoma MDA-MB-231 cells using cytotoxic assays, flow cytometry as well as western blot analysis.

Liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) analysis revealed that ferulic acid, chrysin, pinocembrin, galangin are major constituents of the ethanolic crude extract of the Lebanese propolis, while the hexane fraction mostly contains chrysin, pinocembrin, galangin but at similar levels. Furthermore chemical analysis was performed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) to identify major compounds in the hexane fraction. Reduction of cell viability was observed in Jurkat cells exposed to the ethanolic crude extract and the hexane fraction, while viability of U251 and MDA-MB-231 cells was only affected upon exposure to the hexane fraction; the other fractions (aqueous phase, methylene chloride, and ethyl acetate) were without effect.

Maximum toxic effect was obtained when Jurkat cells were cultivated with 90μg/ml of both the crude extract and hexane faction. Toxicity started early after 24h of incubation and remained till 72h. Interestingly, the decrease in cell viability was accompanied by a significant increase in p53 protein expression levels and PARP cleavage. Cell cycle distribution showed an increase in the SubG0 fraction in Jurkat, U251 and MDA-MB-231 cells after 24h incubation with the hexane fraction. This increase in SubG0 was further investigated in Jurkat cells by annexinV/PI and showed an increase in the percentage of cells in early and late apoptosis as well as necrosis.

In conclusion, Lebanese propolis exhibited significant cytotoxicity and anti-proliferative activity promising enough that warrant further investigations on the molecular targets and mechanisms of action of Lebanese propolis.

Thursday, September 07, 2017

Manuka Honey Kills Wound Pathogens

Comprehensive In Situ Killing of Six Common Wound Pathogens With Manuka Honey Dressings Using a Modified AATCC-TM100

Wounds. 2017 Jul 26. pii: WNDS20170726-3

OBJECTIVE:

While Manuka honey in vitro is strongly antimicrobial, there have been, to the best of the authors' knowledge, no studies showing that dressings impregnated with Manuka honey can kill organisms in the dressing itself.

MATERIALS AND METHODS:

The investigators used the American Association of Textile Chemists and Colorists' 100 test methodology to compare honey-impregnated dressings with control dressings (without honey) on the ability to kill common wound pathogens. Organisms were chosen after a review of the causal organisms found in actual wound infections over a 12-month period in a busy outpatient wound clinic.

RESULTS:

Even when the dressings were challenged daily with further inoculated organisms, > 5-log reductions were routinely noted across a range of pathogens, including multiple drug-resistant species using dressings containing Manuka honey relative to the control.

CONCLUSIONS:

The results presented herein show that when well-characterized medical-grade Manuka honey is used in dressings (ie, a minimum of 400 mg methylglyoxal/kg) these dressings can comprehensively kill common wound pathogens associated with infected wounds

Wednesday, September 06, 2017

Manuka Honey Used to Treat Leg Wounds on Horses


This is how fast manuka honey can heal wounds

Manuka honey with a high UMF rating is significantly more effective than examples with a low rating, or regular honey, in improving wound healing, new research shows.

Researchers at the University of Sydney compared the effectiveness of manuka honey of different UMF (unique manuka factor) ratings (ranging from 5 to 20 depending on antibacterial activity) and ordinary, store-bought honey in healing large, bloody wounds on horses' legs.

They said the results were "quite remarkable" and applicable to humans.

"I have been doing wound-healing studies for many years and if you look across the board there are very few, if any, compounds that have a consistent repeatable effect," Sydney University equine surgical specialist Andrew Dart said...

Tuesday, September 05, 2017

Apitherapy Seminar in New Zealand September 12

Bee products for medicinal use

A seminar looking at the medical uses of products from bees and their environment will be held in Tauranga on September 12.

The seminar will be led by Dr Shaun Holt, science director of HoneyLab, a Tauranga-based pharmaceutical company which is running the world's largest clinical research programme into the medical uses of products from bees and their environment.

Shaun lectures at Victoria University in Wellington, is a qualified pharmacist and doctor and the author of nine books and more than 200 scientific papers.

HoneyLab does not sell jars of Manuka honey to be eaten, rather developing novel medical products and undertaking clinical research to show that locally-sourced natural materials can be as effective and safe as pharmaceutical medicines...

Monday, September 04, 2017

Propolis and the Treatment of Head and Neck Cancers

Evaluating Antioxidant Capacity of Different Propolis Samples from Konya, Turkey and Their Inhibitory Effect on Head and Neck Cancer Cells

Propolis is a resinous mixture collected and used by the honey bees to construct and repair their hives. The component of propolis varies depend on the type of the plants collected. Propolis and its constituents have been subjected to many studies and are known for their antioxidant, antimicrobial and anticarcinogenic properties. In our study, antioxidant and antitumor capacity of propolis from Konya Sakyatan and Kiziloren regions were investigated. According to our result, Kızıloren propolis sample possesses higher antioxidant component and antioxidant capacity than Sakyatan sample. Accordingly, Kiziloren sample showed antiproliferative effect at much lower doses compared to the Sakyatan sample. Both samples effectively inhibited the migration of cancer cells at their determined IC50 dosages. Obtained data indicates that constituents of propolis can greatly vary from one sample to another even in the same region and propolis selections for cancer prevention and treatment studies should be carefully considered.

Sunday, September 03, 2017

Bee Venom May Help Treat Acute Myeloid Leukemia

Honey bee venom combined with 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3as a highly efficient inducer of differentiation in human acute myeloid leukemia cells

J Cancer Res Ther. 2017 Jul-Sep;13(3):544-549

PURPOSE:

Most cancer cells exhibit a defect in their capacity to mature into nonreplicating adult cells and existing in a highly proliferating state. Differentiation therapy by agents such as 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3(1,25-(OH)2 VD3) represents a useful approach for the treatment of cancer including acute myeloid leukemia. Human myeloid leukemia cell lines are induced to terminal differentiation into monocyte lineage by 1,25-(OH)2 VD3. However, usage of these findings in the clinical trials is limited by calcemic effects of 1,25-(OH)2 VD3. Attempts to overcome this problem have focused on a combination of low concentrations 1,25-(OH)2 VD3 with other compounds to induce differentiation of HL-60 cells. In this study, the effect of honey bee venom (BV) and 1,25-(OH)2 VD3, individually and in combination, on proliferation and differentiation of human myeloid leukemia HL-60 cells were assayed.

MATERIALS AND METHODS:

In this in vitro study, toxic and nontoxic concentrations of BV and 1,25-(OH)2 VD3 were tested using Trypan blue stained cell counting and (3[4, 5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide) assay. In addition, differentiation of cells was assayed using a Wright-Giemsa staining and nitroblue tetrazolium reduction test. Data were analyzed by a one-way analysis of the variance test using SPSS software.

RESULTS:

Our findings showed that both the BV and 1,25-(OH)2 VD3, in a dose and time-dependent manner, caused cell death at high concentrations and inhibited cell proliferation at lower concentrations. About 5 nM of 1,25-(OH)2 VD3 induced differentiation of HL-60 cells to monocytes after 72 h. 2.5 μg/ml of BV suppressed proliferation of HL-60 cells but had not any effects on their differentiation, whereas in combination with 5 nM of 1,25-(OH)2 VD3, it enhanced antiproliferative and differentiation potency of 1,25-(OH)2 VD3.

CONCLUSIONS:

These results indicate that BV potentiates the 1,25-(OH)2 VD3-induced HL-60 cell differentiation into monocytes.

Saturday, September 02, 2017

How Honeybee Diet Determines Development Of Queen Bees And Worker Bees

Royal Diet

In honeybee colonies, the queen can easily be identified because she is larger than all of her workers. As it turns out, the early diet of bees determine which bee will be the fertile queen and which will be the sterile workers.  

The prevailing view when it comes to the development of honeybees' social status is that what they eat as larvae determines whether they will become the fertile queen or one of the sterile workers. Now researchers are close to understanding just how honeybee diets affect their future roles in the colony.

Friday, September 01, 2017

Manuka Honey May Help Treat Breast Cancer

The IL-6/STAT3 Signaling Pathway Is an Early Target of Manuka Honey-Induced Suppression of Human Breast Cancer Cells

Front Oncol. 2017 Aug 14;7:167

There is renewed interest in the potential use of natural compounds in cancer therapy. Previously, we demonstrated the anti-tumor properties of manuka honey (MH) against several cancers. However, the underlying mechanism and molecular targets of this activity remain unknown.

For this study, the early targets of MH and its modulatory effects on proliferation, invasiveness, and angiogenic potential were investigated using two human breast cancer cell lines, the triple-negative MDA-MB-231 cells and estrogen receptor-positive MCF-7 cells, and the non-neoplastic breast epithelial MCF-10A cell line. Exposure to MH at concentrations of 0.3-1.25% (w/v) induced a dose-dependent inhibition of the proliferation of MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7, but not MCF-10A, cells. This inhibition was independent of the sugar content of MH as a solution containing equivalent concentrations of its three major sugars failed to inhibit cell proliferation. At higher concentrations (> 2.5%), MH was found to be generally deleterious to the growth of all three cell lines. MH induced apoptosis of MDA-MB-231 cells through activation of caspases 8, 9, 6, and 3/7 and this correlated with a loss of Bcl-2 and increased Bax protein expression in MH-treated cells.  

Incubation with MH induced a time-dependent translocation of cytochrome c from mitochondria to the cytosol and Bax translocation from the cytosol into the mitochondria. MH also induced apoptosis of MCF-7 cells via the activation of caspases 9 and 6. Low concentrations of MH (0.03-1.25% w/v) induced a rapid reduction in tyrosine-phosphorylated STAT3 (pY-STAT3) in MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7 cells. Maximum inhibition of pY-STAT3 was observed at 1 h with a loss of >80% and coincided with decreased interleukin-6 (IL-6) production. Moreover, MH inhibited the migration and invasion of MDA-MB-231 cells as well as the angiogenic capacity of human umbilical vein endothelial cells.

Our findings identify multiple functional pathways affected by MH in human breast cancer and highlight the IL-6/STAT3 signaling pathway as one of the earliest potential targets in this process.

Thursday, August 31, 2017

Lebanese Propolis Exhibited Significant Cytotoxicity and Anti-Proliferative Activity

Chemical characterization and cytotoxic activity evaluation of Lebanese propolis

Biomed Pharmacother. 2017 Aug 26;95:298-307

Chemical composition, anti-proliferative and proapoptotic activity as well as the effect of various fractions of Lebanese propolis on the cell cycle distribution were evaluated on Jurkat leukemic T-cells, glioblastoma U251 cells, and breast adenocarcinoma MDA-MB-231 cells using cytotoxic assays, flow cytometry as well as western blot analysis.

Liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) analysis revealed that ferulic acid, chrysin, pinocembrin, galangin are major constituents of the ethanolic crude extract of the Lebanese propolis, while the hexane fraction mostly contains chrysin, pinocembrin, galangin but at similar levels. Furthermore chemical analysis was performed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) to identify major compounds in the hexane fraction. Reduction of cell viability was observed in Jurkat cells exposed to the ethanolic crude extract and the hexane fraction, while viability of U251 and MDA-MB-231 cells was only affected upon exposure to the hexane fraction; the other fractions (aqueous phase, methylene chloride, and ethyl acetate) were without effect.

Maximum toxic effect was obtained when Jurkat cells were cultivated with 90μg/ml of both the crude extract and hexane faction. Toxicity started early after 24h of incubation and remained till 72h. Interestingly, the decrease in cell viability was accompanied by a significant increase in p53 protein expression levels and PARP cleavage. Cell cycle distribution showed an increase in the SubG0 fraction in Jurkat, U251 and MDA-MB-231 cells after 24h incubation with the hexane fraction. This increase in SubG0 was further investigated in Jurkat cells by annexinV/PI and showed an increase in the percentage of cells in early and late apoptosis as well as necrosis.

In conclusion, Lebanese propolis exhibited significant cytotoxicity and anti-proliferative activity promising enough that warrant further investigations on the molecular targets and mechanisms of action of Lebanese propolis.

Wednesday, August 30, 2017

Romanian Apitherapy Congress October 6-8, 2017

Romanian Api-Congress, Expo, Workshops & Tours

October 6-8, 2017: Apitherapy Congress and Api-Expo 2017

October 9-10: Post-Congress intensive Workshops

Location:

University Lucian Blaga, Faculty of Medicine, Aula Magna, Strada Lucian Blaga 2A, Sibiu, Romania

Monday, August 28, 2017

Propolis in the Prevention of Oral Mucositis in Breast Cancer Patients

Propolis in the prevention of oral mucositis in breast cancer patients receiving adjuvant chemotherapy: A pilot randomised controlled trial.

Eur J Cancer Care (Engl). 2017 Aug 25

Chemo-induced oral mucositis (OM) is associated with significant symptoms, treatment delays and increased costs. This pilot randomised controlled trial aimed at evaluating the safety, tolerability and compliance with propolis in breast cancer patients receiving doxorubicin and cyclophosphamide, testing preliminary clinical efficacy of propolis in the prevention of OM, and prospectively evaluating the incidence of OM. Sixty patients were randomised to receive either a dry extract of propolis with 8%-12% of galangin plus mouth rinsing with sodium bicarbonate (experimental arm), or mouth rinsing with sodium bicarbonate (control arm). OM was evaluated with the NCI-CTCAE v4.0 after 5, 10, 15 and 21 days of treatment. Compliance with, tolerability of propolis and adverse events were recorded. The incidence of OM was also prospectively evaluated for 6 months. Two patients (6.7%) manifested a suspected skin reaction to propolis. No patient in the experimental arm developed OM > G1, while in the control arm OM > G1 was 16.7% (p = .02). The incidence of OM ≥ G1 at the end of cycles 2-8 was higher at the second (25%) and fifth cycles (45.8%). Propolis plus bicarbonate was safe, well tolerated and promisingly effective in the prevention of OM in patients with breast cancer.


Sunday, August 27, 2017

Study of Indian Indian Melifera Propolis

HPLC, NMR based chemical profiling and biological characterisation of Indian propolis

Fitoterapia. 2017 Aug 23. pii: S0367-326X(17)31118-8

The present study aimed to investigate chemical profile, antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of Indian Melifera propolis (IMP) samples collected from 13 different states. Chemical characterisation of ethanolic extracts of IMP (EEMP) samples was carried out by using HPLC and 1HNMR spectroscopy. The antioxidant activity of EEMP samples was measured by DPPH, ABTS, and FRAP assay. Moreover, antimicrobial activity of each EEMP sample tested against bacteria and yeast using a 96 well plate microdilution method. All EEMP samples had remarkable antioxidant and antimicrobial activities.

The antioxidant potential of EEMP samples found to have moderate positive correlation with their total phenolics and flavonoids content. Majority of EEMP samples had minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) ≤1mg/mL against Staphylococcus aureus. Chemometric analysis of 1HNMR data indicated that brown, green, green-brown, red and red-brown coloured IMP samples were chemically distinct from each other, and showed two separate clusters for northern and southern states propolis samples. HPLC analysis confirmed phenethyl caffeate was most common and abundant compound in IMP samples among studied compounds.

In conclusion, this study may be helpful for defining quality of IMP as a raw material, and also in finished food and health care products.

Saturday, August 26, 2017

Honey May Help Treat Diarrhea

Role of Honey in Topical and Systemic Bacterial Infections

J Altern Complement Med. 2017 Aug 24

BACKGROUND:

The development of bacterial resistance to antibiotics has made it more difficult and expensive to treat infections. Honey is getting worldwide attention as a topical therapeutic agent for wound infections and potential future candidate for systemic infections.

OBJECTIVES:

The purpose of this review was to summarise different antibacterial bio-active compounds in honey, their synergistic interaction and their clinical implications in topical and systemic infections. In addition, contemporary testing methods for evaluating peroxide and non-peroxide antibacterial activity of honey were also critically appraised.

DESIGN:

MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane Library, Pub Med, reference lists and databases were used to review the literature.

RESULTS:

Honey contains several unique antibacterial components. These components are believed to act on diverse bacterial targets, are broad spectrum, operate synergistically, prevent biofilm formation, and decrease production of virulence factors. Moreover, honey has the ability to block bacterial communication (quorum sensing), and therefore, it is unlikely that bacteria develop resistance against honey. Bacterial resistance against honey has not been documented so far. Unlike conventional antibiotics, honey only targets pathogenic bacteria without disturbing the growth of normal gastrointestinal flora when taken orally. It also contains prebiotics, probiotics, and zinc and enhances the growth of beneficial gut flora. The presence of such plethora of antibacterial properties in one product makes it a promising candidate not only in wound infections but also in systemic and particularly for gastrointestinal infections. Agar diffusion assay, being used for evaluating antibacterial activity of honey, is not the most appropriate and sensitive assay as it only detects non-peroxide activity when present at a higher level. Therefore, there is a need to develop more sensitive techniques that may be capable of detecting and evaluating different important components in honey as well as their synergistic interaction.

CONCLUSIONS:

Keeping in view the current guidelines for treatment of diarrhea, honey is considered one of the potential candidates for treatment of diarrhea because it contains a natural combination of probiotics, prebiotics, and zinc. Therefore, it would be worthwhile if such a combination is tested in RCTs for treatment of diarrhea.

Friday, August 25, 2017

Charles Mraz Apitherapy Course And Conference (CMACC) November 10-12, 2017, Redondo Beach, CA


Theory In Practice, A Hands-On Approach

November 10-12 2017

The Redondo Beach Hotel

400 N. Harbor Drive

Redondo Beach, CA 90277

310-376-0746

Level One: For those new to Apitherapy or those wanting a basic review to include core knowledge of Apitherapy basics (honey, propolis, pollen, royal jelly and bee venom).

Level Two: For those who are more experienced and already practicing Apitherapy wanting more       advanced knowledge in the uses and applications of Apitherapy.

Thursday, August 24, 2017

Review of the Many Medicinal Uses of Honey

Honey: Single food stuff comprises many drugs

Saudi Journal of Biological Sciences
Available online 16 August 2017

Honey is a natural food item produced by honey bees. Ancient civilizations considered honey as a God gifted prestigious product. Therefore, a huge literature is available regarding honey importance in almost all religions.

Physically, honey is a viscous and jelly material having no specific color. Chemically, honey is a complex blend of many organic and inorganic compounds such as sugars, proteins, organic acids, pigments, minerals, and many other elements. Honey use as a therapeutic agent is as old as human civilization itself. Prior to the appearance of present day drugs, honey was conventionally used for treating many diseases.

At this instant, the modern research has proven the medicinal importance of honey. It has broad spectrum antibiotic, anti-viral and anti-fungal activities. Honey prevents and kills microbes through different mechanism such as elevated pH and enzyme activities. Till now, no synthetic compound that works as anti-bacterial, anti-viral and anti-fungal drugs has been reported in honey yet it works against bacteria, viruses and fungi while no anti-protozoal activity has been reported.

Potent anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory and anti-cancerous activities of honey have been reported.

Honey is not only significant as anti-inflammatory drug that relieve inflammation but also protect liver by degenerative effects of synthetic anti-inflammatory drugs. This article reviews physico-chemical properties, traditional use of honey as medicine and mechanism of action of honey in the light of modern scientific medicinal knowledge.

Wednesday, August 23, 2017

Oral Intake of Honey During Radiotherapy Reduces Severity of Oral Mucositis

The Effect of Honey on Radiation-induced Oral Mucositis in Head and Neck Cancer Patients

Indian J Palliat Care. 2017 Jul-Sep;23(3):317-320

AIM:

The aim of this study is to evaluate the effect of honey on clinically scoring grades of oral mucositis.

MATERIALS AND METHODS:

This interventional study was carried out in Radiation Oncology Department of Mayo Hospital, Lahore. In this study, 82 patients of both genders, of head and neck cancer, planned for radiotherapy, were divided into two groups by random sampling numbers. Patients in both groups were treated with a total dose of 60-78 Grays in 4-6 weeks. In treatment group, patients were instructed to take 20 mL of honey. In control group, they were advised to rinse with 0.9% of saline. Patients were evaluated every week to assess the grades of oral mucositis up to 6 weeks. The assessment tool was Radiation Therapy Oncology Group Grading System. The statistical analysis was done by Chi-square test.

RESULTS:

In honey-treated group, the proportion of mucositis (Grades 3 and 4) was lower and statistically significant as compared to control group at the end of 6 weeks of radiation.

CONCLUSION:

This study showed that oral intake of honey during radiotherapy is valuable in the reduction of severity of oral mucositis.

Tuesday, August 22, 2017

WATCH: Health Benefits of Raw Honey - Allergies


Annessa’s Just One Thing: Raw Honey Benefits

WISH-TV

This week’s health tip is for those of us with seasonal allergies. Registered Dietitian Annessa Chumbley says they can definitely challenge your energy level, so if you’re looking for a natural, simple remedy to help, try this. Take 1 teaspoon of raw local honey every day. Raw local honey is going to look different – because it has local pollen, propolis, and beeswax in it. Those are all good things that may benefit your body, including your allergies. Raw local honey is also a natural antibiotic, anti-fungual, packed with plant nutrients and infection-fighting antibiotics.

Monday, August 21, 2017

Bee Venom May Help Treat Bovine Mastitis

Bee venom decreases LPS-induced inflammatory responses in bovine mammary epithelial cells

J Microbiol Biotechnol. 2017 Aug 17

The world dairy industry has long been challenged by bovine mastitis, an inflammatory disease, which causes economic loss due to decreased milk production and quality. Attempts have been made to prevent or treat this disease with multiple approaches, primarily through increased abuse of antibiotics, but effective natural solutions remain elusive. Bee venom (BV) contains a variety of peptides (e.g., melittin) and that shows multiple bioactivities including prevention of inflammation. Thus, in the current study, it was hypothesized that BV can reduce inflammation in bovine mammary epithelial cells (MAC-T).

To examine the hypothesis, cells were treated with LPS (1 μg/ml) to induce an inflammatory response and investigated anti-inflammatory effects of BV (2.5 and 5 μg/ml). The cellular mechanisms of BV against LPS-induced inflammation were also investigated. Results showed that BV can attenuate expression of an inflammatory protein, cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and pro-inflammatory cytokines such as IL-6 and TNF-α. Activation of NF-κB, an inflammatory transcription factor was significantly downregulated by BV in cells treated with LPS through de-phosphorylation of ERK1/2. Also, pretreatment of cells with BV attenuated LPS-induced production of intracellular reactive oxygen species (e.g., superoxide anion).

These results support our hypothesis that BV can decrease LPS-induced inflammatory responses in bovine mammary epithelial cells through inhibition of oxidative stress, NF-κB, ERK1/2 and COX-2 signaling.

Sunday, August 20, 2017

Australia and New Zealand Battle Over Manuka Honey


Kiwis launch big-money battle against Aussies over manuka honey

We’ve fought over the lamington and the pavlova, and now there’s a new food war brewing between Australia and New Zealand.

The Australian reported on what it called an “escalating and increasingly sour trans-Tasman trade dispute” over the naming rights on honey. New Zealand honey producers have applied to exclusively trademark the name ‘manuka’ in big markets including the US, the UK and China.

They argue that maunka is a Maori word and Australian producers are being opportunistic in trying to cash in on the success that Kiwi producers have had in marketing it. And it’s no little squabble – in Asia, manuka honey is in high demand because of its health properties and can sell for as much as $150 ($120) a kilo, according to The Australian‘s report...

Saturday, August 19, 2017

Honey, Propolis, and Royal Jelly: A Comprehensive Review of Their Biological Actions and Health Benefits

Oxid Med Cell Longev. 2017;2017:1259510

BACKGROUND:

There are several health benefits that honeybee products such as honey, propolis, and royal jelly claim toward various types of diseases in addition to being food.

SCOPE AND APPROACH:

In this paper, the effects of honey, propolis, and royal jelly on different metabolic diseases, cancers, and other diseases have been reviewed. The modes of actions of these products have also been illustrated for purposes of better understanding.

KEY FINDINGS AND CONCLUSIONS:

An overview of honey, propolis, and royal jelly and their biological potentials was highlighted. The potential health benefits of honey, such as microbial inhibition, wound healing, and its effects on other diseases, are described. Propolis has been reported to have various health benefits related to gastrointestinal disorders, allergies, and gynecological, oral, and dermatological problems. Royal jelly is well known for its protective effects on reproductive health, neurodegenerative disorders, wound healing, and aging. Nevertheless, the exact mechanisms of action of honey, propolis, and royal jelly on the abovementioned diseases and activities have not been not fully elucidated, and further research is warranted to explain their exact contributions.

Friday, August 18, 2017

Royal Jelly Boosts Wound Healing


The Royal Jelly Of Bees Is Great At Healing Wounds, And Now We Know Why

By Robin Andrews

When it comes to healing wounds, the things that always sound the most appropriate – and effective – always have fairly technical-sounding names. The US National Institutes for Health (NIH) cite a good few, including “collagen, silicon, chitosan, and hyaluronic acid” wound dressing polymers. They all sound rather sciencey, and are therefore probably quite good.

The technicality of the name of a wound-healing material, however, is not a good indicator of said effectiveness. This is fortunate, as the rather silly-sounding “royal jelly” is also pretty remarkable at healing wounds too, according to a new study in Scientific Reports...

Thursday, August 17, 2017

Korean Acacia Honey Shows Anti-H. pylori Activity

Isolation of Abscisic Acid from Korean Acacia Honey with Anti-Helicobacter pylori Activity
Abstract

Pharmacogn Mag. 2017 Jul;13(Suppl 2):S170-S173

BACKGROUND:

Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is linked to the development of the majority of peptic ulcers and some types of gastric cancers, and its antibiotic resistance is currently found worldwide.

OBJECTIVE:

This study is aimed at evaluating the anti-H. pylori activity of Korean acacia honey and isolating the related active components using organic solvents.

MATERIAL AND METHODS:

The crude acacia honey was extracted with n-hexane, dichloromethane, ethyl acetate (EtOAc), and n-butanol. The EtOAc extract was subjected to octadecyl-silica chromatography. The extracts and fractions were then examined for anti-H. pylori activity using the agar well diffusion method. The antimicrobial activity of abscisic acid against H. pylori was investigated by determining the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs), minimum bactericidal concentrations (MBCs), and by performing a time-kill assay.

RESULTS:

Abscisic acid related to the botanical origins of acacia honey from Korea has been analyzed using ultra-performance liquid chromatography. The MICs and MBCs of abscisic acid were 2.7 ± 1.3 and 6.9 ± 1.9 μg/mL, respectively. The bactericidal activity of abscisic acid (at 10.8 μg/mL corresponding to 4 × MIC) killed the organism within 36-72 h. These results suggest that abscisic acid isolated from Korean acacia honey has antibacterial activity against H. pylori.

CONCLUSION:

Abscisic acid isolated from Korean acacia honey can be therapeutic and may be further exploited as a potential lead candidate for the development of treatments for H. pylori-induced infections.

SUMMARY:

The crude acacia honey was extracted with n-hexane, dichloromethane, EtOAc, and n-butanolThe EtOAc extract yielded eight fractions and four subfractions were subsequently obtained chromatographicallyAbscisic acid was isolated from one subfraction. All the solvent extracts and fractions showed antibacterial activity against H. pyloriAbscisic acid exhibited antibacterial activity against H. pylori.

Wednesday, August 16, 2017

Honey, Bee Venom Nanofibers Exhibit Potent Antibacterial Activity

Apitherapeutics and phage-loaded nanofibers as wound dressings with enhanced wound healing and antibacterial activity

Nanomedicine (Lond). 2017 Aug 14

AIM:

Develop green wound dressings which exhibit enhanced wound-healing ability and potent antibacterial effects.

METHODS:

Honey, polyvinyl alcohol, chitosan nanofibers were electrospun and loaded with bee venom, propolis and/or bacteriophage against the multidrug-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa and examined for their antibacterial, wound-healing ability and cytotoxicity.

RESULTS:

Among different formulations of nanofibers, honey, polyvinyl alcohol, chitosan-bee venom/bacteriophage exhibited the most potent antibacterial activity against all tested bacterial strains (Gram-positive and -negative strains) and achieved nearly complete killing of multidrug-resistant P. aeruginosa. In vivo testing revealed enhanced wound-healing results and cytotoxicity testing proved improved biocompatibility.

CONCLUSION:

The developed biocompatible nanofibers represent competitive wound-healing dressings with potent antibacterial and wound-healing activity.

Tuesday, August 15, 2017

Move Over, Mānuka? Firm Claims Stingless Bee Honey 'Better for Health and Environment'


By Cheryl Marie Tay, 15-Aug-2017

Honey from a stingless bee species native to the Philippines is being touted as superior to mānuka honey, with a Singapore firm marketing products made from the former...

Monday, August 14, 2017

Honey as Immune Booster for Patients Undergoing Chemotherapy

From the hive: Honey, a novel weapon against cancer
Eur J Med Chem. 2017 Aug 3. pii: S0223-5234(17)30586-X

Nowadays there is a folk medicine branch called apitherapy that aims to treat diseases with bee products, including honey. Honey has long been known for its medicinal and health promoting properties. It encloses numerous types of phytochemicals with high phenolic and flavonoid content, which contribute to its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities.

Varieties and variants of polyphenols in honey showed antiproliferative property against several types of cancer. This review focuses on the latest discoveries about the key role of honey in different stages of carcinogenesis, initiation, proliferation and progression, both in vitro and in vivo, as well as on its adjuvant effect in cancer therapy.

Although a possible application of honey and its active compounds as drugs against cancer is still far away from clinical practice, scientific results highlight that they could be used as immune booster for patients undergoing chemotherapy. They showed protective effects against the common exasperating and disabling side effects, mostly mucositis.

Sunday, August 13, 2017

Royal Jelly Suppresses Skin Pigmentation

The functional property of royal jelly 10-hydroxy-2-decenoic acid as a melanogenesis inhibitor

BMC Complement Altern Med. 2017 Aug 9;17(1):392

BACKGROUND:

It has been reported that royal jelly would reduce melanin synthesis and inhibit the expression of melanogensis related proteins and genes. In this study, we evaluate the anti-melanogenic and depigmenting activity of 10-hydroxy-2-decenoic acid (10-HDA) from royal jelly of Apis mellifera.

METHODS:

In this study, we assesses the 10-HDA whitening activity in comparison with the changes in the intracellular tyrosinase activity, melanin content and melanin production related protein levles in B16F1 melanoma cells after treating with 10-HDA. Furthermore, the skin whitening effect was evaluated by applying a cream product containing with 0.5%, 1% and 2% of 10-HDA onto the skin of mice (C57BL/6 J) for 3 week to observe the effect of DL*-values.

RESULTS:

The results showed that 10-HDA inhibited the MITF protein expression (IC50 0.86 mM) in B16F1 melanoma cells. Western blot analysis revealed that 10-HDA inhibited the activity of tyrosinase and the expression of tyrosinase-related protein 1 (TRP-1), TRP-2, and microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF) in B16F1 melanoma cells. In addition, the 10-HDA was applied on the skin of mice show significantly increased the average skin-whitening index (L value).

CONCLUSIONS:

The validation data indicated the potential of 10-HDA for use in suppressing skin pigmentation. The 10-HDA is proposed as a candidate to inhibit melanogenesis, thus it could be developed as cosmetics skin care products.

Saturday, August 12, 2017

Engineered Honey Effective Against Wound Pathogen Biofilms

Use of an engineered honey to eradicate preformed biofilms of important wound pathogens: an in vitro study

J Wound Care. 2017 Aug 2;26(8):442-450

OBJECTIVE:

We previously reported on the ability of SurgihoneyRO (SHRO), an engineered honey, to prevent biofilm formation in vitro, but data were lacking regarding the activity against preformed biofilms. This study aims to assess whether SHRO has any antibacterial activity against mature, preformed biofilms and whether there is any evidence to support the observed clinical effectiveness when SHRO has been used anecdotally on acute and chronic wounds where biofilm is most likely present.

METHOD:

We tested the in vitro antibacterial activity of SHRO against the mature biofilms of 16 clinically relevant wound pathogens, in terms of impacts on biofilm seeding and biofilm biomass. The honey was serially double diluted from 1:3 down to 1:6144, and the lowest dilution achieving a statistically significant reduction in biomass of ≥50%, compared with untreated controls, was recorded.

RESULTS:

All 16 bacterial isolates were susceptible to SHRO, with reduced biofilm seeding observed for all, and percentage reductions ranging from 58% (ACI_C59) to 94.3% (MDR_B) for the strongest concentration of honey (1:3). Furthermore at this concentration, biofilm seeding of the test biofilm was reduced by 80-94.3% (when compared with the positive control) for 12/16 isolates. We additionally demonstrated that SHRO has antibiofilm impacts, with the 24 hour exposure resulting in disruption of the biofilm, reduced seeding and reduced biomass.

CONCLUSION:

SHRO is effective at reducing seeding of preformed biofilms of clinically important wound pathogens in vitro, and also has antibiofilm activity. This supports the anecdotal clinical data for antibiofilm efficacy, and supports the use of SHRO as a promising topical wound care agent.

Friday, August 11, 2017

Bracatinga Honeydew Honey a Natural Source of Bioaccessible Polyphenols



Effect of in vitro gastrointestinal digestion on the bioaccessibility of phenolic compounds, minerals, and antioxidant capacity of Mimosa scabrella Bentham honeydew honeys

Food Res Int. 2017 Sep;99(Pt 1):670-678

Honey is a product traditionally consumed due to its possible health benefits promoted by natural antioxidants. However, few studies have evaluated the effect of in vitro gastrointestinal digestion on these compounds in honeys.

To improve the knowledge of this subject, the present study aimed to investigate the influence of simulated digestion on the stability of antioxidant capacity (FRAP, DPPH, and Folin-Ciocalteu assays), phenolic compounds (LC-ESI-MS/MS), and minerals (CE-DAD) in Mimosa scabrella Bentham honeydew honeys.

The results show that the digestive system, mainly after duodenal digestion, significantly decreased the antioxidant capacity assessed by FRAP (410.3±18.3 to 564.7±8.4μmolFe+2100g-1), DPPH (30.1±0.8 to 33.9±1.4mgAAE100g-1), and Folin-Ciocalteu assays (58.3±2.6 to 142.0±1.6mgGAE100g-1) of this honey. However, phenolic compounds and minerals showed high stability and in some cases, significantly increased after the simulated digestion, presenting a bioaccessible fraction that ranged from 78.2±6.4 to 174.38±6.82% and 94.0±4.3 to 220.5±3.4%, respectively.

Therefore, these honey constituents may be considered highly bioaccessible and potentially bioavailable. Additionally, the correlation between the investigated parameters suggests that other honey constituents could also possibly affect antioxidant capacity of this honey.

In conclusion, the bracatinga (Mimosa scabrella Benth.) honeydew honey can be highlighted as an important natural source of bioaccessible polyphenols, besides presenting highly bioaccessible minerals in its composition, maintaining a satisfactory antioxidant capacity.

Thursday, August 10, 2017

Cuban Red Propolis and Brazilian Green Propolis May Help Treat Laryngeal Cancer

Mechanisms underlying the cytotoxic effect of propolis on human laryngeal epidermoid carcinoma cells

Nat Prod Res. 2017 Aug 8:1-7

Propolis has been used as a traditional remedy for centuries because of its beneficial effects, including anticancer properties.

The aim of this study was to compare the cytotoxic mechanism of Cuban red propolis (CP) and Brazilian green propolis (BP) on human laryngeal carcinoma (HEp-2) cells. Cell viability, leakage of lactate dehydrogenase, fluorescence staining, mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm) and the expression of pro/anti-apoptotic genes were assessed. Cell viability and cytotoxic assays suggested a dose-dependent effect of CP and BP extracts with a possible association of intracellular reactive oxygen species production and decreased ΔΨm. Both samples induced apoptosis via activation of TP53, CASP3, BAX, P21 signalling, and downregulation of BCL2 and BCL-XL. CP exerted a higher cytotoxic effect than BP extract.

Our findings suggest further investigation of the main components of each propolis sample, what may lead to the development of strategies for the treatment of laryngeal cancer.

Wednesday, August 09, 2017

Honeydew Honey an Important Natural Source of Bioaccessible Polyphenols

Effect of in vitro gastrointestinal digestion on the bioaccessibility of phenolic compounds, minerals, and antioxidant capacity of Mimosa scabrella Bentham honeydew honeys

Food Res Int. 2017 Sep;99(Pt 1):670-678

Honey is a product traditionally consumed due to its possible health benefits promoted by natural antioxidants. However, few studies have evaluated the effect of in vitro gastrointestinal digestion on these compounds in honeys.

To improve the knowledge of this subject, the present study aimed to investigate the influence of simulated digestion on the stability of antioxidant capacity (FRAP, DPPH, and Folin-Ciocalteu assays), phenolic compounds (LC-ESI-MS/MS), and minerals (CE-DAD) in Mimosa scabrella Bentham honeydew honeys. The results show that the digestive system, mainly after duodenal digestion, significantly decreased the antioxidant capacity assessed by FRAP (410.3±18.3 to 564.7±8.4μmolFe+2100g-1), DPPH (30.1±0.8 to 33.9±1.4mgAAE100g-1), and Folin-Ciocalteu assays (58.3±2.6 to 142.0±1.6mgGAE100g-1) of this honey. However, phenolic compounds and minerals showed high stability and in some cases, significantly increased after the simulated digestion, presenting a bioaccessible fraction that ranged from 78.2±6.4 to 174.38±6.82% and 94.0±4.3 to 220.5±3.4%, respectively.

Therefore, these honey constituents may be considered highly bioaccessible and potentially bioavailable. Additionally, the correlation between the investigated parameters suggests that other honey constituents could also possibly affect antioxidant capacity of this honey.

In conclusion, the bracatinga (Mimosa scabrella Benth.) honeydew honey can be highlighted as an important natural source of bioaccessible polyphenols, besides presenting highly bioaccessible minerals in its composition, maintaining a satisfactory antioxidant capacity.

Tuesday, August 08, 2017

Vietnamese Stingless Bee Propolis May Help Treat Pancreatic Cancer


Chemical Constituents of Propolis from Vietnamese Trigona minor and Their Antiausterity Activity against the PANC-1 Human Pancreatic Cancer Cell Line

J Nat Prod. 2017 Aug 7

The ethanol extract of propolis from the Vietnamese stingless bee Trigona minor possessed potent preferential cytotoxicity against PANC-1 human pancreatic cancer cells in nutrient-deprived medium, with a PC50 value of 14.0 μg/mL.

Chemical investigation of this extract led to the isolation of 15 cycloartane-type triterpenoids, including five new compounds (1-5), and a lanostane-type triterpenoid. The structures of the new compounds were elucidated on the basis of NMR spectroscopic analysis.

Among the isolated compounds, 23-hydroxyisomangiferolic acid B (5) and 27-hydroxyisomangiferolic acid (13) exhibited the most potent preferential cytotoxicity against PANC-1 human pancreatic cancer cells under nutrition-deprived conditions, with PC50 values of 4.3 and 3.7 μM, respectively.

Monday, August 07, 2017

Signature Compounds of Manuka Honey - Leptosperin, Lepteridine and 2-Methoxyacetophenone

New research advances Manuka honey definition

Voxy, 8/2/2017

Comvita (NZX:CVT) announced today research supporting industry and government moves to improve the existing definition for Manuka honey. The research paper has been peer reviewed and published in the Journal of Food Chemistry. The research describes how unique signature compounds can be identified and used to profile genuine Manuka honey.

Researchers examined a range of nectar and honey samples, identifying and measuring several potential honey marker compounds. The compounds were evaluated based on their uniqueness to Manuka, relative abundance, stability, and potential for adulteration. The most significant signature compounds of Manuka honey were found to be leptosperin, lepteridine and 2-methoxyacetophenone...

Sunday, August 06, 2017

Honey, Royal Jelly Component Defensin-1 Boosts Wound Healing

Bee-derived antibacterial peptide, defensin-1, promotes wound re-epithelialisation in vitro and in vivo

Sci Rep. 2017 Aug 4;7(1):7340

Royal jelly (RJ) has successfully been used as a remedy in wound healing. RJ has multiple effects, including antibacterial, anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory activities, in various cell types. However, no component(s) (other than antibacterial) have been identified in RJ-accelerated wound healing.

In this study, we demonstrate that keratinocytes are responsible for the elevated production of matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) after incubation with a water extract of RJ. Furthermore, the keratinocyte migration and wound closure rates were significantly increased in the presence of RJ extract. MMP-9 production was reduced significantly following proteinase K treatment but remained stable after heat treatment, indicating that active component(s) have a proteinous character.

To identify the component responsible for inducing MMP-9 production, RJ extract was fractionated using C18 RP-HPLC. In fractions exhibiting stimulatory activity, we immunochemically detected the bee-derived antibacterial peptide, defensin-1. Defensin-1 was cloned, and recombinant peptide was produced in a baculoviral expression system. Defensin-1 stimulated MMP-9 secretion from keratinocytes and increased keratinocyte migration and wound closure in vitro. In addition, defensin-1 promoted re-epithelisation and wound closure in uninfected excision wounds.

These data indisputably demonstrate that defensin-1, a regular but concentration variable factor found in honey and RJ, contributes to cutaneous wound closure by enhancing keratinocyte migration and MMP-9 secretion.

Saturday, August 05, 2017

Bee Venom May Help Prevent Cancer

Anti-mutagenic and synergistic cytotoxic effect of cisplatin and Honey Bee venom on 4T1 invasive mammary carcinoma cell line

Introduction: Honey Bee Venom (HBV) has various biological activities such as inhibitory effect on several types of cancer. Cisplatin is an old and potent drug to treat the most of cancer. Our aims in this study were determination of the anti-mutagenic and cytotoxic effects of HBV on mammary carcinoma.

Methods: 4T1 cell line was cultured in RPMI-1640 with 10% fetal bovine serum, at 37°C in humidified CO2-incubator. The cell viabilities were examined by MTT assay. HBV was screened for its anti-mutagenic activity against sodium azide by Ames test. The results were assessed by SPSS software and one-way ANOVA considering P < 0.05 level of significant. Results: The result showed that 6 ug/ml HBV, 20 ug/ml cisplatin and 6 ug/ml HBV with 10 ug/ml cisplatin can induce an approximately 50% 4T1 cell death. 7 mg/ml HBV with the inhibition of 62.76% sodium azide showed high potential in decreasing the mutagenic agents.

Conclusions: MTT assay demonstrated that HBV and cisplatin can cause cell death in a dose-dependent manner. The cytotoxic effect of cisplatin is also promoted by HBV. Ames test results indicated that HBV can inhibit mutagenic agent. Anti-mutagenic activity of HBV was increased significantly in presence of S9. Our findings reveal that HBV has cancer preventing effects.

Friday, August 04, 2017

High Levels of Methylglyoxal Found in Nordic Mire and Forest Honeys

Screening bioactivity and bioactive constituents of Nordic unifloral honeys

Food Chem. 2017 Dec 15;237:214-224

The objective of this study was to screen the antibacterial and antioxidant activity of thirty nine honey samples from Finland, Sweden, Norway and Denmark. Their physicochemical properties were analysed, antioxidant activity was evaluated by DPPH assay and antibacterial activity against Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus was assessed by microdilution assay.

The honey samples obtained were buckwheat, caraway, clover, dandelion, fireweed, heather, lime tree, lingonberry, rape, raspberry, sweet clover, willow, mire, honeydew and polyfloral. Eleven honey samples showed high antioxidant activity. With 15% honey dilution, three unifloral honeys had over 85% inhibition against growth of P. aeruginosa and ten honey samples against S. aureus.

The buckwheat, raspberry and honeydew honeys showed the highest antibacterial and antioxidant activity. An unexpectedly high amount of methylglyoxal was found in mire and forest honeys. Some phenolic compounds are shown to be plant species-specific floral markers due to their appearance in specific unifloral honey samples.

Thursday, August 03, 2017

Royal Jelly Has Anti-Inflammatory Action

Royal Jelly Inhibits the Production of Proinflammatory Cytokines by Activated Macrophages

Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry
Volume 68, 2004 - Issue 1

In this study, we have examined the anti-inflammatory actions of royal jelly (RJ) at a cytokine level. When supernatants of RJ suspensions were added to a culture of mouse peritoneal macrophages stimulated with lipopolysaccharide and IFN-γ, the production of proinflammatory cytokines, such as TNF-α, IL-6, and IL-1, was efficiently inhibited in a dose-dependent manner without having cytotoxic effects on macrophages. This suggests that RJ contains factor(s) responsible for the suppression of proinflammatory cytokine secretion. We named the factor for honeybees RJ-derived anti-inflammatory factor (HBRJ-AIF), and further investigated the molecular aspects of it. Size fractionation study showed that HBRJ-AIF is composed of substances of low (<5 and="" high="" kda="">30 kDa) molecular weights, with the former being a major component. Chromatographic analysis showed that MRJP3 is one candidate for the HBRJ-AIF with high molecular weights. Thus, our results suggest that RJ has anti-inflammatory actions through inhibiting proinflammatory cytokine production by activated macrophages.

Wednesday, August 02, 2017

Honey Helps Treat Vaginitis

Comparison of vaginal ointment of honey and clotrimazole for treatment of vulvovaginal candidiasis: A random clinical trial

J Mycol Med. 2017 Jul 28. pii: S1156-5233(17)30039-2

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE:

Vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC) is the most prevalent vaginitis in women, accounting for 10 million medical referrals a year. Vaginal clotrimazole is a drug of choice for VVC treatment. However, increased drug resistance to this microorganism has led to an interest in naturally derived antifungal drugs. This study was conducted to compare honey vaginal ointment and clotrimazole vaginal ointment for VVC treatment.

METHODS:

Eighty women diagnosed with VVC were assigned to two groups for honey ointment and clotrimazole ointment treatment using a simple randomization rule. The ointments were applied at night for seven days. The disease symptoms including inflammation, vaginal discharge, and irritation at baseline in the fourth and eighth days of treatment were examined and compared between the two groups. The data was analyzed by SPSS version 20 with the Friedman test, Chi-square test, and independent t-test. P<0 .05="" as="" considered="" p="" significance.="" the="" was="">
RESULTS:

The two groups were similar for inflammation severity, irritation, and discharge at baseline. In both the groups, the symptoms disappeared after treatment. On the eighth day of treatment, there was a significant difference in inflammation and vaginal discharge between the two groups. Inflammation (P = 0.002) and vaginal discharge (P = 0.003) recovered better in the clotrimazole group. But there was no significant difference in irritation severity and satisfaction with treatment between the two groups. In the two groups, no side effects were reported.

CONCLUSION:

Honey contributes to treating VVC. Thanks to the popular positive attitudes of honey, its availability, no need for sterility, and its cost-effectiveness, it is a choice of treatment for VVC.

Tuesday, August 01, 2017

Propolis Protects Liver From Damage

Effect of Saudi Propolis on Hepatitis Male Rats

 J Nutr Food Sci 2017, 7:4

This study was conducted to evaluate the benefits of the Saudi gum (propolis) by reduction of the toxic substances in rats that target the liver and affect its performance. The chemical components of propolis were identified.

The study included 42 Albino male rat of a healthy weight ranged from 255-287 g, and they were divided into six equal groups. The first group was fed the standard diet (negative control group), while the other 35 rats were injected with carbon tetrachloride under the skin (1.5 ml/ kg) in order to infect them with acute hepatitis.

After 24 h, the groups of infected rats were divided and the second group (positive control group) was also fed a standard meal, while the other groups infected which were the third, fourth, fifth and sixth were fed on a diet with access to a standard concentration of Saudi bee gum of 200, 300, 400 and 500 mg/kg, respectively, through the mouth for 4 consecutive weeks.

The results showed that propolis contains 41 compounds and out of these 17 compounds have been identified. Volatile oil was in proportion of 20.37%, aliphatic acids in 16.87%, and esters in 15.48% and alcohols in 13.98%. The results showed a significant improvement in the biochemical parameters in hepatitis rats which were treated with propolis. Results also showed that propolis increased the activity of antioxidant enzymes in the liver of hepatitis rats treated with propolis.

The study concluded that propolis plays an effective role in protecting the liver from damage and inflammation that can be caused by the components of antioxidation and inflammation.

Monday, July 31, 2017

Propolis Material Boosts Wound Healing

Nanostructured lipid systems modified with waste material of propolis for wound healing: Design, in vitro and in vivo evaluation

Colloids Surf B Biointerfaces. 2017 Jul 10;158:441-452

Propolis, a natural compound that can accelerate the wound healing process, is mainly used as ethanolic extract. The extractive solution may also be obtained from the propolis by-product (BP), transforming this waste material into a pharmaceutical active ingredient.

Even if propolis does not show toxicity, when used as an extract over harmed skin or mucosa, the present ethanol content may be harmful to the tissue recovering, besides hindering the drug release.

This study describes the development of solid lipid nanoparticles (SLN) and nanostructured lipid carriers (NLC) as topical propolis delivery systems and the investigation of their in vitro and in vivo activities.

The extracts were evaluated to guarantee their quality, and the lipid dispersions were characterized with respect to morphology (cryo-TEM), size and diffractometry (X-ray) properties. The occlusive capacity of formulations was also evaluated by an in vitro technique, which determines the occlusion factor. The drug entrapment efficiency (EE), as well as the in vitro drug release profile from the nanoparticulate systems was investigated as well. The size analysis performed through 90 days was favorable to a topical administration and the polydispersity index, though not ideal in all cases due to the high content of resins and gums from the extracts, were relatively stable for the SLN. The propolis extract contributes to the occlusive potential of the formulations.

The human immortalized keratinocytes presented good cell viability when tested with both extracts (propolis and BP) freely or entrapped in the systems. SLN modified with propolis material provided an acceleration of the in vivo wound healing process.

Sunday, July 30, 2017

Bees Create Hemp Propolis

PR WEB, 7/30/2017

Although cannabis honey was not a possibility, French did make an amazing and unexpected discovery during this experiment. He found that with some special equipment, he could encourage the bees to collect the resins from the hemp and store them in the hive. Bees used these resins to create propolis – which is a powerful antimicrobial compound used to sterilize and repair the hive. For humans and animals, it can be used to heal wounds and fight certain diseases and bacteria.

Saturday, July 29, 2017

Bee Venom Acupuncture May Help Treat Parkinson's Disease

Efficacy of Combined Treatment with Acupuncture and Bee Venom Acupuncture As an Adjunctive Treatment for Parkinson's Disease

J Altern Complement Med. 2017 Jul 28

OBJECTIVE:

The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of acupuncture and bee venom acupuncture (BVA) for idiopathic Parkinson's disease (IPD) through a sham-controlled trial. We also investigated whether there is a sustained therapeutic effect by completing follow-up assessments after treatment completion.

DESIGN:

A single center, double-blind, three-armed randomized controlled trial.

SETTINGS/LOCATION:

This study was performed at a university hospital in Seoul, Republic of Korea.

SUBJECTS:

Seventy-three (73) patients with IPD were the subjects. They were randomly assigned to the active treatment group, sham treatment group, or conventional treatment group.

INTERVENTIONS:

The active treatment group received acupuncture and BVA and the sham group received sham acupuncture and normal saline injections, twice a week for 12 weeks. The conventional treatment group maintained anti-parkinsonian drugs without additional intervention.

OUTCOME MEASURES:

The Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS) part II and part III score, postural instability and gait disturbance (PIGD) score, gait speed and number, Parkinson's Disease Quality of Life Questionnaire, Beck Depression Inventory, and postural stability at baseline and at 12, 16, and 20 weeks.

RESULTS:

Sixty-three (63) patients provided a complete data of assessments, including a final follow-up. After 12 weeks of treatment, a significant difference was observed between the active treatment group and the conventional treatment group. After the end of the treatment, the treatment effects were maintained significantly in the active treatment group only.

CONCLUSIONS:

It is suggested that the combined treatment of acupuncture and BVA might be safe and useful adjunctive treatment for patients with IPD.

Friday, July 28, 2017

Stingless Bee Geopropolis Shows Antioxidant, Antibacterial and Antiproliferative Activity

Melipona mondury produces a geopropolis with antioxidant, antibacterial and antiproliferative activities

An Acad Bras Cienc. 2017 Jul 20:0

Geopropolis is a special type of propolis produced by stingless bees. Several pharmacological properties have been described for different types of geopropolis, but there have been no previous studies of the geopropolis from Melipona mondury.

In this study, we investigated the antioxidant, antibacterial, and antiproliferative activities of M. mondury geopropolis, and determined its chemical profile. The antioxidant activity was determined using in vitro ABTS·+, ·DPPH, and β-carotene/linoleic acid co-oxidation methods. The antibacterial activity was determined using a microdilution method with Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, and methicillin-resistant S. aureus. The antiproliferative effect was determined in tumor cell lines using the Alamar Blue assay. The chemical profile was obtained using UHPLC-MS and UHPLC-MS/MS.

The butanolic fraction had the highest concentration of phenolic compounds and more potent antioxidant properties in all assays. This fraction also had bacteriostatic and bactericidal effects against all bacterial strains at low concentrations, especially S. aureus. The hexane fraction had the highest antiproliferative potential, with IC50 values ranging from 24.2 to 46.6 µg/mL in HL-60 (human promyelocytic leukemia cell) and K562 (human chronic myelocytic leukemia cell), respectively. Preliminary chemical analysis indicates the presence of terpenes and gallic acid in the geopropolis.

Our results indicate the therapeutic potential of geopropolis from M. mondury against inflammatory, oxidative, infectious, and neoplastic diseases.

Thursday, July 27, 2017

Honey Flavonoids Could Effect Drug Uptake

Honey flavonoids inhibit hOATP2B1 and hOATP1A2 transporters and hOATP-mediated rosuvastatin cell uptake in vitro

Xenobiotica. 2017 Jul 26:1-34

1. Some flavonoids contained in the common diet have been shown to interact with important membrane uptake transporters, including organic anion transporting polypeptides (OATPs). OATP2B1 and OATP1A2 expressed in the apical membrane of human enterocytes may significantly contribute to the intestinal absorption of drugs, e.g. statins. This study is aimed at an evaluation of the inhibitory potency of selected honey flavonoids (namely galangin, myricetin, pinocembrin, pinobanksin, chrysin, fisetin) towards hOATP2B1 and hOATP1A2 as well as at examining their effect on the cellular uptake of the known OATP substrate rosuvastatin.

2. Cell lines overexpressing the hOATP2B1 or hOATP1A2 transporter were employed as in vitro model to determine the inhibitory potency of the flavonoids towards the OATPs.

3. Chrysin, galangin and pinocembrin were found to inhibit both hOATP2B1 and hOATP1A2 in lower or comparable concentrations as the known flavonoid OATP inhibitor quercetin. Galangin, chrysin and pinocembrin effectively inhibited rosuvastatin uptake by hOATP2B1 with IC50 ∼ 1-10 μM. The inhibition of the hOATP1A2-mediated transport of rosuvastatin by these flavonoids was weaker.

4. The found data indicate that several of the tested natural compounds could potentially affect drug cellular uptake by hOATP2B1 and/or hOATP1A2 at relative low concentrations, a finding which suggests their potential for food-drug interactions.

Wednesday, July 26, 2017

Propolis Throat Spray

Guatemala Times

This throat spray is naturally made of extracted propolis that comes from bees. What makes it, even more, greater is that it is absolutely made of high grade and the source comes from the bees that are pollinating in British Columbia, within the mountain regions. To make it even clearer, propolis comes from the substances that gets collected by bees from plants and trees resin which they then use to line the hive and protect it against virus and bacteria. I guess we can say that it’s a natural anti biotic.

With this, you don’t have to endure using such bitter or awful tasting medicine and now you might just actually enjoy using this to heal your self from a painful sore throat. All it contains is propolis, GMO-free vegetable glycerin, and purified water...

Tuesday, July 25, 2017

Propolis Component May Help Treat Diabetic Nephropathy

Environ Toxicol Pharmacol. 2017 Jun 28;54:80-92. doi: 10.1016/j.etap.2017.06.021. [Epub ahead of print]

Metabolomics study of cadmium-induced diabetic nephropathy and protective effect of caffeic acid phenethyl ester using UPLC-Q-TOF-MS combined with pattern recognition

Diabetic nephropathy (DN) is the most severe complication of diabetes and multiple factors are involved in the pathogenesis of DN. Among them, cadmium (Cd) acts as a risk factor inducing the occurrence of DN.

The present study focused on investigating the protective role of caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE), an active component of propolis from honeybee hives, against Cd-induced DN in mice based on ultra performance liquid chromatography coupled with quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-Q-TOF-MS)and pattern recognition. Serum and urine biochemical indexes were detected and histopathological observation has been done to evaluate the damage of Cd on animals. Moreover, the global serum profiles of different groups were distinguished by UPLC-Q-TOF-MS and principal component analysis (PCA) were applied for group differentiation and marker selection. Moreover, the influence of Cd on the oxidative status in DN mice were also evaluated by assessing the parameters of oxidative stress, proinflammatory cytokines and antioxidant competence. As shown in the scores plots, the distinct clustering among controls, DN and CAPE groups were observed, significant changes in serum levels of LysoPC(18:1(11Z)), 2,3-dinor-8-iso-PGF2a, PS(18:1(9Z)/18:1(9Z)), DG(17:0/22:4 (7Z,10Z, 13Z, 16Z)/0:0) and Arachidonic acid(AA) were noted and identified as potential biomarkers, the effect of CAPE reverted them back to near normalcy. Further, It was observed a significant improvement in lipid peroxides (LPO) and protein carbonyls (PCO) levels in Cd-induced DN kidneys along with a significant decline in superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and reduced glutathione (GSH) levels, however, CAPE relieved these changes.

In conclusion, the study suggested that the pathogenesis of DN caused by Cd probably owes to the perturbations of lipid metabolism and AA metabolism; CAPE seems to be effective agent and may be related to its potent antioxidant, anti-inflammatory properties and action as an Nrf2 activator.